August 10, 2016:
The 3rd leg of the AMAPPS abundance survey on the Henry Bigelow began today, as we departed the WHOI dock around 10:00am. The day got off to a rocky start since one of our science crew had to get off the ship at the last minute; she had been sick the past few days and unfortunately was not able to sail with us. Her departure dampened spirits as we left the dock, but it couldn’t be helped.
We hit the ground running today, arriving at our first survey area at 1:00pm, west of Nantucket. Since most of the transect lines in that area had been covered on the previous leg, we only had about 4 hours of surveying left to do before heading offshore. Unfortunately, the weather was not as cooperative as I had hoped, and after a couple of hours, we had to break off effort due to rain and sea state. We’re heading out to the shelf break now, with the plan to start tomorrow morning just south of the Great South Channel. The weather looks rough for the next few days, but we’ll make the most of it!
Danielle Cholewiak & the Bigelow team
Report from the AMAPPS Bigelow survey on 6July2016, our first bad weather day.
The 2016 AMAPPS (Atlantic Marine Assessment Program for Protected Species) marine mammal and sea turtle abundance survey started on 27 July 2016. This is a multi-platform survey involves two ships (the NOAA ships Henry B. Bigelow and Gordon Gunter) and two NOAA Twin Otter airplanes that will together survey waters along the entire US Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida and from the shore line to the 200 nautical mile US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) during 27 July – 28 Sept 2016. These surveys are being led by the Northeast and Southeast Fisheries Science Centers and funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS, also known as NOAA Fisheries), the US Navy and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). In addition, our Canadian colleagues are conducting an extensive aerial survey using two planes during the same time period covering Canadian waters around Nova Scotia and Newfoundland . One other large scale cetacean abundance survey, known as SCANS (Small Cetaceans in European Atlantic waters and the North Sea) III is also taking place this summer around Europe.
There are 2 teams of visual observers on the AMAPPS Bigelow shipboard surveys that are scanning the waters using high powered binoculars looking for whales, dolphins, turtles, and seals and using line transect sampling methods. During 28 Jun – 4 Jul 2016 we covered about 575 nautical miles of track lines off the coasts of Virginia and Delaware and have already seen more than 2000 animals from 15 species. So far the most common species are common dolphins and striped dolphins. We have been in warm Gulf Stream waters where we have seen spinner dolphins (below).
In the deeper waters we have already seen three species of beaked whales (see below for more on these species). One of the most spectacular sightings we had was a group of about 24 false killer whales feasting on a large fish.
Photos of spinner dolphin and false killer whales by Richard Holt under MMPS permit number 17355-01.
In addition to searching for marine mammals there is a team of observers dedicated to searching for birds. The seabird team, conducting a modified 300 meter strip transect, found 390 birds representing 19 species, so far. We averaged about seven species per day, the exception being 4 July on line 25 when we found a remarkable 12 species including our first White-faced Storm-Petrel and South Polar Skua of the cruise. Furthermore, 961 seabirds were counted in six multi-species feeding flocks, consisting almost entirely of the three expected shearwater species: Cory’s, Great, and Audubon’s Shearwaters. These feeding flocks were almost all farther offshore in warmer water, presumably associating with feeding tuna or other predatory fish. Highlights, and there always are highlights of one sort or another, were three Trindade (aka Trinidade) Petrels, a single Black-capped Petrel (all about 170 to 190 nautical miles east of Cape Charles/Cape Henry) and a confiding immature Brown Booby (below) wandering somewhat farther north than expected. The seabird team remains on a high level of alert as we survey the outer lines, eager for what other warm water species we might find out here. We collectively cry “East!” and the farther east (or southeast), the better. It’s all about the Gulf Stream, isn’t it?
Brown Booby that used the Bigelow as a resting spot. Photo by Michael Force
There is also a team of scientists listening for animals using hydrophones that trail behind the ship. We’ve had a air diversity of species during this first week of the AMAPPS cruise. Sperm whales seem to be heard almost everywhere, and we’ve had some of their other click types besides the usual (ie: creaks and codas). We had a really good day where the visual team was able to spot and bring us to various different groups of dolphins and give us the opportunity to collect really high quality unambiguous recordings. We also managed in one week to collect recordings on the three species of beaked whales that we’ve encountered in the past (Cuvier’s, Gervais’, and Sowerby’s). The sonobuoys are being deployed every night to listen for the presence of baleen whales (which the array cannot detect). So far we have not heard baleen whales, but have detected sperm whales and dolphins.
Lastly, to learn more about the ecosystem that these marine mammals and turtles are living in we have scientists collecting data on oceanography and plankton. These scientists work at night utilizing a range of instruments, imaging systems, and nets. For oceanographic properties of the water like temperature, salinity and density, a CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) is lowered through the water column. The EK60 is an active acoustic instrument on the hull of the ship that pings in 5 different frequencies to detect animals in the water column ranging in size from 1cm plankton to adult fish. Phytoplankton, individual celled plants less than 0.5mm in size, are being imaged from the surface water by an Imaging FlowCytobot. The zooplankton, animals 5mm to 2cm in size that live in the water column, are being imaged by a towed Video Plankton Recorder. Zooplankton is also being sampled using two net systems: a 61cm bongo, which is a standard plankton net, and a 2m x 1m neuston modified with weights to sample from the surface to 25m depth. The samples collected with the nets will have all the zooplankton and larval fish in them identified back at the lab, but we will especially be looking for bluefin tuna larvae, which were not previously thought be in the study area. Out here in the Gulf Stream, salps, a gelatinous type of zooplankton, have been the most frequently seen species in the nets. In fact each net may have over a gallon of salps that must be sieved out and discarded before the sample is preserved.
Above: Images of the most common salp, Salpa aspera, in its chain form and solitary form taken by the Video Plankton Recorder, and an image of a layer of salps around 50m depth as seen by the 200kHz transducer of the EK60.
The AMAPPS Bigelow Team, Leg I
Good Afternoon Everyone,
This will be the final update from the GU1608 Ecosystem Monitoring Survey. We have completed sampling at all of our stations in the three areas that were planned for this cruise: the Middle Atlantic Bight, Southern New England and Georges Bank. In addition to that, we’ve been able to even reach a few stations in the western Gulf of Maine region which are the target for Leg 2 of this survey. As a result, we have gathered a lot of data, and hundreds of samples which will be used to contribute to our understanding of the complex processes taking place in our marine environment on the east coast of the United States.
This success has been due to a number of factors, one of which has been excellent weather, which always plays a large role in determining the outcome of a survey. The biggest factor, to my mind however, has been the unrelenting support we, the scientific staff, have been shown by the command and crew of the Gordon Gunter. They have worked tirelessly to ensure that everything that could be done to provide the best possible outcome for this cruise, was done. This includes tweaking our cruise track to provide the most efficient route between points, to making sure our gear was deployed and retrieved safely, to keeping the winches and ship running smoothly to feeding us meals that are not just healthy but so appetizing that they were always something to look forward to with great anticipation!
Scientific staff from Leg 1 of the GU1608 Ecosystem Monitoring Survey:
Back row (left to right): John Loch, Chris Taylor, Tamara Holzwarth-Davis, Jerry Prezioso, and Jessica Lueders-Dumont. Front Row (left to right): Lauren Kittell-Porter, Zach Topor, and Bonny Clarke
Thank you all so much for having not just welcomed us aboard as staff, but as part of the on-board “family” of this vessel. We are very grateful and proud to have served alongside all of you on this scientific mission.
Jerry Prezioso and all the scientists from GU1608 Ecosystem Monitoring Survey
As I am writing this, the Gordon Gunter is in the final stages of surveying on Georges Bank. We are in an area marked as Little Georges on the nautical charts, on the western edge of Georges Bank. We arrived here by rounding Cultivator Shoals to the north this morning. As we were working our way towards a station up there, a wonderful thing happened. The heavy fog, which has surrounded us since we first reached Georges on Sunday, lifted, and we could see the sun!
Tracking our progress with a high-lighter on a chart and a finger puppet on the next position to be visited. The red dot to the left of the finger puppet marks Cultivator Shoals which we sampled on the morning of June 1. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
At the same time, our marine animal observer on board, John Loch, from the Canadian Wildlife Service, was greeted with a profusion of marine wildlife to record: pilot whales, common dolphins and seabirds: Wilson Storm Petrels by the hundreds, Sooty and Greater Shearwaters, Fulmars, Red Phalaropes, Greater and South Polar Skuas, and Jaegers, to list some of them. It’s been his busiest day of the cruise!
Meanwhile, our other work on board continues as before, foggy or not.
John Loch, the Canadian Wildlife Service observer, at his post on the flying bridge of the Gordon Gunter. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Common dolphin seen near the Gordon Gunter. Photo by John Loch, Canadian Wildlife Service
Black-back Gull chasing a Herring Gull. Photo by John Loch, Canadian Wildlife Service
Our Princeton researcher, Jessica Lueders-Dumont, together with Bonny Clarke from the USGS (United States Geological Survey), continued her sampling of seawater, phytoplankton and zooplankton from the station that we visited in the Cultivator Shoals area this morning. Her research aims to trace the path that nitrogen takes through the first steps of the marine food chain, by comparing the ratios of nitrogen 14 and 15 stable isotopes of this element in seawater, phytoplankton and zooplankton.
Bonny Clarke working on the Princeton filtering rack. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
She captures the seawater and phytoplankton from different depths using our Niskin water bottle sampler, and the zooplankton samples she gets from a set of small bongo nets mounted above our larger ones during our plankton tows. With filtering racks set up in the wet lab of the Gordon Gunter, Jess and Bonny have filtered hundreds of liters of seawater during this cruise to gather the data for this research.
Bongo net array showing the small bongos used by Jessica Lueders-Dumont for capturing zooplankton to determine their nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
With only a couple of days left in our cruise, it now looks like our mission of sampling three areas of the continental shelf – the Mid-Atlantic Bight, Southern New England and Georges Bank – will be accomplished. We have been given a gift of weather here on Georges Bank, a notorious area where there is no lee from wind on any quarter. I have been glad to live with the constant droning of our foghorn in return for the calm seas that came along with it. Today of course, we have the best of all worlds; calm seas, no fog and a profusion of marine wildlife surrounding us. Truly a memorable day at sea!
GU1608 Ecosystem Monitoring Survey
Good evening everyone,
Today at noon the Gordon Gunter reached its first Georges Bank station, tucked away on the southwest corner of this area. Even before reaching it, we were greeted with a typical Georges Bank warm-weather phenomenon, fog. We’ve been surrounded by it most of the day, but along with it the water has been very calm, so it hasn’t hindered our progress at all.
Plankton catches in the eastern part of the Southern New England area have changed from the ones we had further south in the Mid-Atlantic Bight area. For one thing we started seeing considerable amounts of Calanus finmarchicus copepods, easily recognized by the reddish oils they form for food storage and visible in their clear bodies. What is always amazing is the patchiness of these concentrations. One station may have large numbers of these animals, while an adjacent station just a few miles away will have almost nothing in it even after a comparable tow for the same amount of time! Also present in some of the Southern New England plankton tows were Phronima amphipods. This two-centimeter-long crustacean takes up residence inside another planktonic organism, a salp. It devours the salp’s inner tissues then anchors itself inside the clear outer barrel-shaped salp body which it swims along and uses as a nursery for its young. The distinct profile of this tiny amphipod is said to have been the inspiration for the much larger and more menacing creature in the movie Alien!
Comparison of catches from plankton tows at two adjacent stations just a few miles apart in Southern New England waters: large numbers of Calanus finmarchicus copepods in one, and almost nothing in the other! Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Another change has been visible in the imagery coming from the Imaging FlowCytoBot (IFCB) unit. We are seeing mostly diatoms now as opposed to the dinoflagellates we had earlier in the trip. These microscopic planktonic algae are easily recognized from the distinctive shapes of the clear silica shells they form to encase themselves in, and which have been visible all day today on the computer monitor hooked up to the IFCB.
A Phronima amphipod removed from its salp dwelling, caught in a recent plankton tow in southern New England waters. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Today’s images of diatoms from the monitor of the laptop connected to the Imaging FlowCytoBot unit, which samples the surface water the ship is sailing through. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Looking ahead to the remaining time we have for this cruise, it is apparent that Georges Bank will be the last area we’ll be able to survey. With a favorable forecast for the next few days I’m optimistic that we’ll get to most of it, and perhaps leave some easily-reached stations on the northern edge for the next leg to sample when they start work in the Gulf of Maine.
GU1608 Ecosystem Monitoring Survey
Friday, May 27:
By noontime today we completed 61 stations and are now heading towards the eastern portion of the southern New England area, prior to heading onto Georges Bank, weather permitting. With a favorable forecast for the next few days it seems possible that we will be able to survey much of Georges Bank before returning to port in Davisville, Rhode Island, leaving the next leg of the cruise to concentrate mostly on the Gulf of Maine, the largest of the continental shelf areas that we cover.
GU1608 cruise progress as of Friday, May 27. Image provided by Paula Fratantoni, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Recent plankton catches have been normal for this location and time of year, consisting of mostly copepods, some chaetognaths (arrow worms), and a fair number of hyperiid amphipods in some of the samples. The hyperiids are very distinctive, with large compound eyes that cover their entire head, and a very tenacious habit of clinging to the plankton net meshes, making them difficult to wash out!
Hyperiid amphipod from one of our recent plankton tows. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Our Imaging FlowCytoBot, provided by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and tended by URI student Lauren Kittell-Porter, has been taking photos of the smaller organisms that would slip through the meshes of our plankton nets. She has recorded an extensive number of images of dinoflagellates over the last several days.
Lauren Kittell-Porter monitoring images coming from the cylindrical Imaging FlowCytoBot unit on her right. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
These tiny organisms, although considered phyto or plant plankton due to their ability to photosynthesize with their onboard chloroplasts, are also motile due to the two flagella they are constantly whipping around, allowing them to move through the water, although still at the mercy of currents. The images captured by the Imaging FlowCytoBot are very clear and detailed, and are taken from water pumped to the instrument from a couple of meters below the surface, at an intake near the bow of the vessel.
Images of dinoflagellates recorded by the Imaging FlowCytoBot. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
To celebrate the upcoming holiday weekend, we had our second round of safety drills today. Everyone has learned their duty stations for fire, abandon ship and man overboard situations. Now, with drills completed, we can relax and just concentrate on our normal 12-hour days out here!
The scientists and crew don their flotation gear for Friday’s Memorial Day Weekend safety drill. Photo by Jerry Prezioso, NEFSC/NOAA Fisheries
Happy Memorial Day Weekend everyone!
GU1608 Ecosystem Monitoring Survey